Reimaging only fixed it in the sense that it will fix any issue by getting back before it occurred.
As I'm pretty sure it has to do with bootsecting which corrupted the BCD to remove an XP Dual Boot, Bill's idea to run bootrec commands needs to be tried on this problem.
I was surprised that a Repair Install did not fix it after a 3 hour investment in it. I thought a Repair install would rebuild the BCD since it is a known method to correctly reconfigure a dual boot from Seven.
But then again it might not be BCD at all. Someone who knows for sure or finds out will hopefully update these threads as they are the top search results on Google.