There is NO NEED to delete anything!
The post I directed you at said that their fonts had already been deleted, and they had to reinstall them - as far as I can see your installed fonts are correct, no NO ACTION is required.
I suspect that your System Font has been changed somehow -
Go to the Desktop, and right-click on it.
select Personalise (the bottom entry)
Select a theme (any theme - it doesn't matter for the moment which)
Then click on the Window Colour icon at the bottom of the window (2nd from the left)
This should bring up the Windows Colour and Appearance window - in the top selection-box on the left, select "Selected Items" and click Apply, then change the Font there to 'Segoe UI' (or at least change the setting, and click Apply - hopefully it'll then show something readable!)