As far as I know, a thorough Checkdisk scan takes more than seconds. More like an hour for each 300 GB drive space--something like that.
The command is chkdsk /r
The results can be seen in Event Viewer.
I wouldn't assume my drive is healthy just because it passes Checkdisk. Checkdisk is about looking for file system errors and bad sectors, but your drive could drop dead at any time for no apparent reason.