I personally think it's unlikely, it just detected weird things and decided to shut down.
Those connectors are all digital buttons and USB ports (I hope). To fry a mobo you have to do remarkably stupid things with the PSU connectors, there isn't enough juice in the other connections.
At least all times I screwed up those connections myself (heh, old hardware, no manual nor other hints) the mobo never fried.
Now be a bit more optimistic and find the motherboard's manual, it should state what pins on the motherboard are. Don't touch it until you know again what the hell is going on.
Also, posting the motherboard model (it should be printed on the motherboard somewhere) should help us giving better advice (and finding the manual in pdf from the net).
As a sidenote, you still have the old case with the single connector right? What about connecting that again and trying to start up? if it runs with that then everything is still alive.