There are a lot of limiting factors to the speed of data. But in general, if you hook up with a USB cable, you are going to get USB speeds. You need to get an easta cable to run on an esata port. You can use it for an internal drive or an external drive. Get an esata enclosure and put your hard drive in it and you will get esata speeds. You can also get esata to sata cables, hook it to the rear esata port in the rear and the sata connection on your internal hard drive. You will always be limited to the type cable you use and the enclosure as well as the speed of the hard drive. There are other factors, but those are the main ones. You need a USB 3.0 port and a USB 3.0 cable to get USB 3.0 Speeds. You need an eSATA port and an eSATA enclosure and cable for esata speeds. This is what I use for esata.
Newegg.com - Thermaltake BlacX ST0005U External Hard Drive SATA Enclosure Docking Station 2.5” & 3.5” USB 2.0 & eSATA
You will notice, it comes with a USB 2.0 plug and an eSATA plug, meaning you can use either one but not at the same time. You can also switch hard drives in less than 1 minute. Turn it off, pull the old one out stick the new one in, turn it back on.
If you want to use that port for an internal drive, you can use this for your sata data cable hooked to your rear port.
Newegg.com - BYTECC Model SATA-136EO 36" Serial ATA to e-SATA Cable