If you know one for sure you think is corrupt, perhaps go to the Windows\winsxs folder and find the backup fonts. The should be listed microsoft-windows-font-.... . If you are on a x64 system, put amd64_ in front. Try replacing the know bad font with a good one.
I have not tried myself, so I do not know what type of permissions you might need. It looks like if you open the folder and right click on a particular font, it will give you the option to install with a UAC shield.
Another option would be to do a repair install...