Hello BreakAes, welcome to Seven Forums! see my next post below for important info
Your Windows 7 C: is on an Extended partition / Logical drive and the issue is Windows cannot boot natively from an Extended partition, the Windows System
boot files must be stored on a Primary partition to function correctly.
You can use the Partition Wizard boot CD to convert C to a Primary using the outline in Option Two
of this tutorial at the link below.
Partition Wizard : Use the Bootable CD
Then you will need to mark the C: partition Active
and do the 3 separate startup repairs, with the restarts to the C: partition to (re)create the "System" boot files to that partition; then you will be able to image just the C: partition.
Startup Repair - Run 3 Separate Times
As good and reliable a program as Partition Wizard is, I would not trust the installed version for the operation you need, use the boot CD as suggested and be sure to post back with any further questions you may have and to keep us informed.
First download the Partition Wizard Bootable Disk (PWBD) ISO file to the desktop, be sure to get the PWBD and not the installed version; scroll down to see the download link for the Bootable CD ISO file at this link below.
Partition Wizard Free Bootable CD
Then use ImgBurn to burn the ISO to a CD, at no greater than 4x speed with a verify; it was designed for use and works best from a CD rather than a DVD; then boot
the created CD to make the changes, it doesn't take any input from the user to setup, just relax and let it load.
ImgBurn Free ISO Burning Software