Hello slincii and welcome to Seven Forums.
Since this machine has experienced a BSOD issue, I'd first check for any damaged or corrupt system files. Run a system file checker scan from an elevated command prompt (option two.) If problems are found, run the scan 3 times and reboot the computer after each scan. SFC /SCANNOW Command - System File Checker
If the icons are still missing, try rebuilding the icon cache. Icon Cache - Rebuild