Perhaps you are talking about increasing desktop icons and font size thereof. In windows, there is only one method that Shawn advised, and that will change the icon and font size everywhere, not only in desktop.
But you may try a program that creates Icons and fonts on desktop only. AveDesk
. Download and install this, Set the settings at your preference, and start it with windows.
It looks good if you hide your desktop icons.Avedesk generates icons those are easily resizable, icon lebels are also converted to various size and style.