i don't use public folders either, i prefer classic shared drives.
i remember deleting them a while back on a previous install (can't remember which build now), and i ran into a problem. sorry, i can't remember exactly what the problem was, but i had to reinstate public folders to fix it.
apologies for the lack of details, but i wouldn't delete them if i were you.
however, if you plan to learn your own way, and do delete them, and find that they need reinstalling, here's a tutorial to reinstate them.