Ok, time for surgery then. I would recommend to create a restore point
before continuing to be safe. This way if you make a mistake, you can do a system restore
and select to go back to this restore point.
Use the tutorial below as a guideline by going to the same registry location and doing the same steps, but look for this deleted account in ProfileImagePath
in the long S-1-5-xx
subkeys instead. If you find it, then delete it's S-1-5-xx
Be sure that you DO NOT delete any S-1-5-xx
subkeys for user accounts that you did not delete (ex: your account), and the ones in step 7A. Logon Screen - Fix Showing Only "Other User" and Last Logged On User