So the laptop in question is a 15,9" ASUS K53SV (I think, not 100% on the exact numbers/lettering) with an i7 2630, with integrated graphics chip AND a Geforce 540m. I suspect that the reason why I cannot increase my desktop resolution further is because that integrated chip insists on running instead of the dedicated GPU. Through Nvidea's control panel I have set the 540 to the preffered card, but this only seems to be applied on applications. I think I confirmed that by accessing advanced settings through the screen resolution menu, which clearly lists that integrated chip and not the 540.
I also think it is questionable that my actual screen would not be able to support anything higher, since my 3 year old mid-range 15,9" HP laptop seemed to have no problem at all reaching 1680. If that is the case, I would definately be dissapointed.