Hello Jeremy and welcome to Seven Forums.
You could try running a System File Checker scan from an elevated command prompt (option two.) If any errors are found run the scan 3 times rebooting in between each scan. SFC /SCANNOW Command - System File Checker
You could also try to rebuild your icon cache. Icon Cache - Rebuild
If none of this helps you might want to consider a Repair Install. It will try to to fix your currently installed Windows 7 and preserve your user accounts, data, programs, system drivers
, etc. You'd have to visit Windows Updates to reinstall a bunch of updates once the Repair Install is finished. Repair Install
If you choose this option I'd turn off automatic updates and manually install them. If need be I'd start with SP1 first as that will take care of the first 50 -100 updates. Then I'd install just a few at a time starting with Critical/Important updates, Recommended, then Optional. Keep track of the KB numbers and reboot after each group.
If any problems are noted you'll know which group to uninstall. Try installing just one at a time rebooting after each one. They'll either all install correctly or you'll know which specific update is causing the problem. Save it for last and continue with the next group. Yes, it's a lot slower but with so many updates to reinstall I find it works a lot better than relying on automatic updating.