If Win 7 cannot identify the controller, then neither can it see any devices attached to the controller. I think a missing driver
for the controller is your problem.
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To determine exactly what the missing device is, right click on the mass storage controller device in Device Manager, select Properties, Details tab, and find "Hardware IDs" line. You'll see something beginning PCI\VEN\... Right click and copy that string, or one of the other hardware ids, and then do a Google search on the string. That will probably identify the controller very precisely.
The next step will be to find a Windows 7-compatible driver for the device. Depending on the device, motherboard, etc., you might best look at the motherboard manufacturer's web site, or the controller's if you have a separate controller card. Or maybe you need to update your BIOS to a later version. The correct answer is hard to estimate without knowing your system specs.