The install files are located as below
Log location before Setup can access the drive.
Log location when Setup rolls back in the event of a fatal error.
Log location of Setup actions after disk configuration.
Used to log Plug and Play device installations.
Location of memory dump from bug checks.
Location of log minidumps from bug checks.
Location of Sysprep logs.
There from Technet for Windows 7
This may also help
Windows Vista setup log file locations http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927521
Can you see any files in the new partition from Windows XP after you tried to install Windows 7?