Ok, I am going to take a wild guess and suggest that Windows "re-assigned" your C: drive to some other drive letter when you restored the clone. This happened to me just a few days ago with a restored clone image of Windows 7 RTM. It booted fine, even gave me the correct login screen, but after I logged in with my password I ended up just like you with a blank desktop, no icons, no taskbar.
I want you to try something: Try to get into task manager ctrl-alt-del, then "start task manager", then try to run a program from there. "File" "New Task" "Run". Type "explorer". See if anything comes up. If it does, see if you can find your system drive and see what letter it is assigned. I bet it is not C: anymore. If you can't get explorer to run, try running some other program. If you get an error message like "path can't be found" that also would suggest to me that you are missing your C: drive assignment.
If that is the problem, then here is the solution that worked for me: Multibooters, Vista Dual and Multibooting - Drive Letter Problems
I had to boot into Windows 7 safe mode with a recovery DVD to do the registry hack, I could not get into disk management service at all, and others here will tell you not to do it as it will make your system unuseable, but IF you have no other option and you are ready to re-install the whole thing anyway, I might try it first.
Let us know what happens.