Try to empty the temp folder:
Click on Start > All Programs > Accessories > Run
Copy and paste the following text in the Open field and then press Enter:
Note: ensure all applications are closed before deleting the files.
Delete all the files and folders from the above location.
Also try the steps given under the ‘Delete items from the Office Clipboard’ section available on the following link to be able to clear clipboard: Copy and paste multiple items by using the Office Clipboard - Word - Office.com
If the issue still persists, try to open Excel in safe mode and check if that fixes the issue. To know how to open Excel in Safe mode, refer to the following link: Work with Office safe modes - Outlook - Office.com
If Excel works fine in safe mode, try to disable the add-in(s) in Excel using the steps given in the link below: Enable or disable add-ins in Office programs - Support - Office.com