I have my Android Phone storing everything in my google/gmail account. The is the key to getting ths to work.
I have Outlook syncing with my google/gmail account.
The google/gmail account is the central sharing point in the cloud. This also gives you an automatic online backup.
I can use my Android devices, goggle/mail account in a browser, and Outlook on my PC. All see the the same calandar information. I can add something to my calendar on my phone and it shows up in Outlook. I can add something in Outlook and it show up on my phone. I can also do directly to my google/gamil account in a web browser and add somnething to the calendar ... shazam ... it is now on my Phone and Outlook.
What you need is an app for your PC that will sync Outlook to your Google/gmail accounts. There are some free one and some paid one. Some of the Paid ones will also sunc your contacts to google/gmail. Then they will show up in your phone..