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Windows 7: Configuring Static Routes

29 Jan 2014   #1
Lery

Windows 7
 
 
Configuring Static Routes

Hello and thank you for taking the time to read this post. Here is my situation:

Physical server configured with one NIC card. IP address is: 192.168.1.136

Physical server is acting as the domain controller and running DNS services.

Physical server is running Windows Server 2012 and utilizing the Hyper-V Feature.

Hyper-V virtual switch has two virtual switches created. They're as follows:

10.10.10.2
10.10.20.2

I have numerous virtual machines working off of these two virtual switches without issue.

The physical server has Routing and Remote Access configured and working for NAT traffic for these virtual switches. All virtual guests are able to access the internet without a problem.

The problem comes in when I try to use my workstation PC. This is also a physical computer configured with one NIC as follows:

IP: 192.168.1.116
Subnet: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.1 (This is the IP of the Linksys Router)

I'm trying to use this workstation PC to access my virtual guests running on 192.168.1.136. I understand that when I try to connect to something like 10.10.10.4, the Linksys router has no idea where this is. Therefore, I've configured a static route. Unfortunately, the static route is not working as I expected. Here is how I have the static route setup:

Destination LAN IP: 10.10.10.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136

Destination LAN IP: 10.10.20.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136

When I ping 10.10.10.4 from my 192.168.1.116 workstation, it's unable to reach it. I'm not sure what I could missing and any help would be appreciated. I can of course ping the physical server 192.168.1.136 without issue.

I did try changing the Destination LAN IP from 10.10.10.0 to 10.10.0.0 just to see if that would work. It did not. I also tried using the Linksys IP address for the gateway and that does not accept as a valid route.


My System SpecsSystem Spec
.
30 Jan 2014   #2
Shadowjk

Windows 7 Professional x64 SP1 ; Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard
 
 

You appear to be doing NAT on the server. This is most likely the cause. I would edit your Routing and remote access policies so that there is a "public" (192.168.1.0/24 IP address) associated with each VM. This way when you send traffic to those devices the server will translate the destination IP (One you created) to the virtual machine associated.

Since these are on the same LAN segment you would need to set up static routes that force the traffic to the server as the gateway (like the static routes you have done). If you don't then the workstation client will attempt to broadcast for the VM's MAC address or send the traffic to the linksys router. If memory serves me correct when I last did this you may need to set up a static route on the virtual machine however if there are default routes configured correctly (Default gateway) then these should work fine.

Note   Note
Since you are using ICMP it uses it's own transport layer protocol therefore using PAT (Port address translation) is not a viable option.


If you open up Routing and Remote Access console on the local Windows server machine and go to your NAT settings.

Configuring Static Routes-step1.png

From there right click your "public" interface or the physical NIC that connects to the 192.168.1.0/24 network and then click on properties. This should bring up a similar properties window as the one below.

Configuring Static Routes-step-2.png

From here, click on the address pool tab to show the pool of addresses that NAT can use.

Configuring Static Routes-step-3.png

Click on Add to add a range of addresses that your virtual machines will be associated with on your physical network. For example, using your address range it could be something similar to the following:

Configuring Static Routes-step-4.png

Once the range has been set you can click on the OK button to add it to the available "public" addresses for use.

After this click on the reservations button to tie an address from the pool you created with the logical IP address of a VM (e.g 10.10.10.2). Once the reservation window is open click on the Add button to add a reservation/IP association.

Configuring Static Routes-step-5.png

Configuring Static Routes-step-6.png

Now enter in the "public" address that you will use to connect to that VM from the workstation client and the VM's IP address. For example, using your scenario the following could be a valid reservation.

Configuring Static Routes-step-7.png

Note   Note
You must ensure that the tick box is checked in order to allow network connections initiated from the workstation client


Now you can click add,OK and apply to apply the configuration. Equally you can then add additional reservations for each VM that you wish to access.

The final step that needs to be done is to configure the static routes on the workstation client to enable the traffic to be sent to the server.

The static routes should be:

Destination IP address: 192.168.1.151 - Or the reserved IP address made for that VM
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.255 - Meaning, exactly that IP address
Gateway: 192.168.1.136 - IP address of the physical NIC of the server that hosts the VM

Repeat the static routes for each VM and you should have network connectivity now. To ping the VM from the workstation client just simply use the reserved IP address you created on the server.

warning   Warning
It is possible for firewall restrictions to block certain applications so ensure that exceptions are made on both the server, workstation client and VM


EDIT: If you can tell me the pool range that you have used I may be able to calculate the subnet mask and static route that could include all of the IP address in that reserved range. This way you can shorten the routing table from individual routes to just one route. Also just a heads up. If you do use this method of shortening the routes that make sure that no other physical device is assigned those addresses since the workstation client will automatically send traffic for them to the server itself (Due to the static route).

Hopefully this will resolve your issue,
Josh


My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #3
Lery

Windows 7
 
 

Thank you Josh! That did the trick. I'm now able to use remote desktop from my workstation to connect to machines.

I would ask one last thing. Well, maybe not the last, but hopefully. I notice that running Routing and Remote Access with NAT is VERY slow. Usually connecting through Remote Desktop is instant. It takes maybe a minute to connect from my workstation.

From the physical server, with IP address 192.168.1.136, I utilize the Hyper-V interface to connect to one of the guest virtual machines. Virtual machine has the ip address of 10.10.10.3 and another machine has 10.10.20.3. When I try to copy a simple file it takes a considerable amount of time. When I try to copy a file from two virtual machines on the 10.10.10.0/24 subnet, it's fine. Very fast. So I think this points to the software NAT? Is there anything I can do to make it work faster?

All firewalls are off.
My System SpecsSystem Spec
.

30 Jan 2014   #4
Shadowjk

Windows 7 Professional x64 SP1 ; Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard
 
 

Hmmm... Most likely NAT causing the increased latency. For every packet that flows through the NIC the server needs to strip the destination IP address of 192.168.1.X and then change it to the IP address of the VM. Equally on the return traffic it does the same thing.

What are the system resources of the server? It might be worth considering merging your VM network into the same IP subnet as your LAN. This will remove the need to use NAT in the first place. Equally, when thinking about it... You don't need NAT to begin with. As long as the server has a virtual NIC connected to each virtual switch and has a valid IP address you should be able to send traffic destined to 10.10.10.0/24 and 10.10.20.0/24 to the server. This will be done with the static routes that you had previously configured:

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Lery
Destination LAN IP: 10.10.10.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136

Destination LAN IP: 10.10.20.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136
The issue was that NAT was only working one way. By removing it traffic can flow both directions.

Was there a particular reason for using it?

Josh
My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #5
Lery

Windows 7
 
 

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Shadowjk View Post
Hmmm... Most likely NAT causing the increased latency. For every packet that flows through the NIC the server needs to strip the destination IP address of 192.168.1.X and then change it to the IP address of the VM. Equally on the return traffic it does the same thing.

What are the system resources of the server? It might be worth considering merging your VM network into the same IP subnet as your LAN. This will remove the need to use NAT in the first place. Equally, when thinking about it... You don't need NAT to begin with. As long as the server has a virtual NIC connected to each virtual switch and has a valid IP address you should be able to send traffic destined to 10.10.10.0/24 and 10.10.20.0/24 to the server. This will be done with the static routes that you had previously configured:

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Lery
Destination LAN IP: 10.10.10.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136

Destination LAN IP: 10.10.20.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136
The issue was that NAT was only working one way. By removing it traffic can flow both directions.

Was there a particular reason for using it?

Josh
Where do I run the route command on? The virtual machines or the host? I would love to drop NAT. I just assumed I required it.

The physical server is a Dell T610. It has 24GB of RAM. The processor is running at 2.27GHZ with 2 processors. Total of 8 cores.

Here is the breakdown of the network I have.

Cable Modem from ISP-----Linksys Router (192.168.1.1)

Dell T610 physical NIC plugged into Linksys router with IP of 192.168.1.136

Dell T610 is acting as Active Directory Domain Controller and DNS.

Various other devices work outside of this server. They're personal home machines and devices. The workstation I mentioned previously is one of these "workgroup" based machines with an IP of 192.168.1.116.

My goal would be to have two subnets on the Dell T610. I need this for my work testing. I do have a spare NIC I can put into the Dell T610.

The Dell T610 is running Hyper-V. In the virtual switch manager I have one external switch mapped or connected to the NIC card in the server.

I created two additional virtual switches. Both of these internal switches are internal. Once you create the switch it creates a virtual NIC. On the NIC created by Hyper-V I give it an IP address and subnet mask. The gateway and DNS entries are left blank. One of these internal virtual switches is configured for 10.10.10.0/24 and the other internal switch configured for 10.10.20.0/24.

I can now build virtual machines and assign them to the virtual switch I desire them to be on.

Routing and Remote Access services with NAT is providing the internet connection and now with your help, the ability to remote into the virtual machines on the virtual switches.

I'm very much open to a better approach. As I mentioned I do have an additional physical NIC card I can put into the Dell T610. I do not have another physical router, so the one Linksys router is all I have.

Thank you so much for the assistance so far. It's been a great learning experience.
My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #6
Shadowjk

Windows 7 Professional x64 SP1 ; Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard
 
 

I see why you are using NAT now... If you didn't the source IP address of the VM's would be from 10.10.10.x or 10.10.20.x. When the linksys router see's the traffic it will route the return internet traffic back to the ISP since it isn't on the 192.168.1.0/24 network.

How much control does your linksys router have? Are you able to set up static routing?

NAT seems the suspect for the slow connection. temporarily disable the NAT process and then on the workstation client put in the static routes that I quoted before:

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Lery
Destination LAN IP: 10.10.10.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136

Destination LAN IP: 10.10.20.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136
Configuring Static Routes-disable-nat.png

Now try remote access and responsiveness? Still slow or has speed improved?

Note   Note
Internet access for the VM's will be disabled since NAT is turned off. This is for troubleshooting and is not a fix!


Josh


My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #7
Lery

Windows 7
 
 

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Shadowjk View Post
I see why you are using NAT now... If you didn't the source IP address of the VM's would be from 10.10.10.x or 10.10.20.x. When the linksys router see's the traffic it will route the return internet traffic back to the ISP since it isn't on the 192.168.1.0/24 network.

How much control does your linksys router have? Are you able to set up static routing?

NAT seems the suspect for the slow connection. temporarily disable the NAT process and then on the workstation client put in the static routes that I quoted before:

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Lery
Destination LAN IP: 10.10.10.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136

Destination LAN IP: 10.10.20.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.1.136
Attachment 304122

Now try remote access and responsiveness? Still slow or has speed improved?

Note   Note
Internet access for the VM's will be disabled since NAT is turned off. This is for troubleshooting and is not a fix!


Josh
When you use the word, workstation, I associate that to what I've described as workstation with the IP address of 192.168.1.116. It's a physical machine outside of the Dell T610. Just wanted to make sure that is clear.

I disabled NAT on the Dell T610 (192.168.1.136). I then rebooted the workstation to clear out the routes. I then typed:

route add 10.10.10.0 mask 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.136

It said OK!. I tried connecting to 10.10.10.4 over RDP and it was not able to. I tried to ping and got the request timed out.

Next thoughts or ideas?
My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #8
Shadowjk

Windows 7 Professional x64 SP1 ; Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard
 
 

Remove the network bridge if you have already made one, my apologies Also change the IP address of the interfaces back to how they should if they changed. They should return to the original static configurations if the bridge is removed.

On the main server:

Go into Routing and Remote Access

Right click the server in the left hand pane and click on 'Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access

Configuring Static Routes-step-1.png

Click Next to start the wizard. On the next page click on the 'Custom Configuration' radio button and then click next.

Configuring Static Routes-step-2.png

From here check the 'LAN Routing' tick box to enable the routing of traffic between each interface

Configuring Static Routes-step-3.png

Now click next and finish to end the configuration. You may be prompted about starting the service. Just start the service if asked.

Configuring Static Routes-step-4.png

Now, with the workstation client (192.168.1.116) the static routes should still be in place with the server as the gateway. Now try to initiate a connection. Remember that firewalls could block the communication so temporarily disable them if you have any enabled.

Test connectivity? Any quicker than without NAT?

If it is then you can keep that LAN routing config. To enable internet connection to the VMs simply add static routes on the linksys router that says something like:

Destination Address: 10.10.10.0
Mask: 255.255.255.0
Next Hop/Gateway: 192.168.1.136

Destination Address: 10.10.20.0
Mask: 255.255.255.0
Next Hop/Gateway: 192.168.1.136


Again, my apologies for creating the network bridge... I forgot this was a server that could do routing...

Josh


My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #9
Lery

Windows 7
 
 

Quote   Quote: Originally Posted by Shadowjk View Post
Scrap that

Updating....
lol, I was just coming here to say that I did it.

I'm also sorry that I forgot to reply. Yes I can add the static routes to the Linksys router.

After attempting the bridge the IP address switched from 192.168.1.136 to 192.168.1.131

I added a static route on the workstation to the gateway 192.168.1.131.

When I ping I get Destination host unreachable instead of request timed out.

But, I'm still not able to RDP to the 10.10.10.4 VM.

I'll wait for your update.
My System SpecsSystem Spec
30 Jan 2014   #10
Shadowjk

Windows 7 Professional x64 SP1 ; Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard
 
 

Updated post if you have not checked.

Josh
My System SpecsSystem Spec
Reply

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