With my current build, I have an NZXT Phantom 410 as my case and I love it - it also has all of the features that you want:
-Quick fitting for HDDs/SSDs
-3 drive bays at the front
-Room behind the mobo to route cables and lots of places to fasten cables to
-If I've counted correctly, room for 6 fans
I put some photos of my build in this album: http://www.sevenforums.com/album.php?albumid=918 NZXT :: Unique. Unprecendented. Inspired - Phantom 410 Product Detail
If you want something bigger, go for the NZXT Phantom (ie not 410) - it has room for a 240mm fan on the top. My H100 has a 240mm fan and I thought that the Phantom 410 would fit the radiator from the water cooler, but it didn't, so I had to fasten it to the roof of the case with a lot of wire
They're both well within budget.