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Windows 7: memory leak problems,at least i think so

30 Aug 2009   #21

Win7 64bit Ultimate

The differences made in x64. Someone asked earlier in the thread and this is what it means. Note that AMD licensed the technology to Intel just as Intel licensed the x86 technology to AMD. See the wiki for details on exactly how the licensing is set up and what that means.

The primary defining characteristic of AMD64 is the availability of 64-bit general purpose registers, i.e. rax, rbx etc., 64-bit integer arithmetic and logical operations, and 64-bit virtual addresses. The designers took the opportunity to make other improvements as well. The most significant changes include:
  • 64-bit integer capability: All general-purpose registers (GPRs) are expanded from 32 bits to 64 bits, and all arithmetic and logical operations, memory-to-register and register-to-memory operations, etc. can now operate directly on 64-bit integers. Pushes and pops on the stack are always in 8-byte strides, and pointers are 8 bytes wide.
  • Additional registers: In addition to increasing the size of the general-purpose registers, the number of named general-purpose registers is increased from eight (i.e. eax,ebx,ecx,edx,ebp,esp,esi,edi) in x86-32 to 16 (i.e. rax,rbx,rcx,rdx,rbp,rsp,rsi,rdi,r8,r9,r10,r11,r12,r13,r14,r15). It is therefore possible to keep more local variables in registers rather than on the stack, and to let registers hold frequently accessed constants; arguments for small and fast subroutines may also be passed in registers to a greater extent. However, AMD64 still has fewer registers than many common RISC processors (which typically have 3264 registers) or VLIW-like machines such as the IA-64 (which has 128 registers).
  • Additional XMM (SSE) registers: Similarly, the number of 128-bit XMM registers (used for Streaming SIMD instructions) is also increased from 8 to 16.
  • Larger virtual address space: Current processor models implementing the AMD64 architecture can address up to 256 TB (248 or 281,474,976,710,656 bytes)of virtual address space. This limit can be raised in future implementations to 16 EB (264 or 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 bytes). This is compared to just 4 GB (232 or 4,294,967,296 bytes) for 32-bit x86. This means that very large files can be operated on by mapping the entire file into the process' address space (which is sometimes faster than working with file read/write calls), rather than having to map regions of the file into and out of the address space.
  • Larger physical address space: Current implementations of the AMD64 architecture can address up to 1 TB (240 or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes) of RAM; the architecture permits extending this to 4 PB (252 or 4,503,599,627,370,496 bytes) in the future (limited by the page table entry format). In legacy mode, Physical Address Extension (PAE) is included, as it is on most current 32-bit x86 processors, allowing access to a maximum of 64 GB (236 or 68,719,476,736 bytes).
  • Instruction pointer relative data access: Instructions can now reference data relative to the instruction pointer (RIP register). This makes position independent code, as is often used in shared libraries and code loaded at run time, more efficient.
  • SSE instructions: The original AMD64 architecture adopted Intel's SSE and SSE2 as core instructions. SSE3 instructions were added in April 2005. SSE2 replaces the x87 instruction set's IEEE 80-bit precision with the choice of either IEEE 32-bit or 64-bit floating-point mathematics. This provides floating-point operations compatible with many other modern CPUs. The SSE and SSE2 instructions have also been extended to operate on the eight new XMM registers. SSE and SSE2 are available in 32-bit mode in modern x86 processors; however, if they're used in 32-bit programs, those programs will only work on systems with processors that have the feature. This is not an issue in 64-bit programs, as all AMD64 processors have SSE and SSE2, so using SSE and SSE2 instructions instead of x87 instructions does not reduce the set of machines on which x64 programs can be run. SSE and SSE2 are generally faster than, and duplicate most of the features of the traditional x87 instructions, MMX, and 3DNow!.
  • No-Execute bit: The "NX" bit (bit 63 of the page table entry) allows the operating system to specify which pages of virtual address space can contain executable code and which cannot. An attempt to execute code from a page tagged "no execute" will result in a memory access violation, similar to an attempt to write to a read-only page. This should make it more difficult for malicious code to take control of the system via "buffer overrun" or "unchecked buffer" attacks. A similar feature has been available on x86 processors since the 80286 as an attribute of segment descriptors; however, this works only on an entire segment at a time. Segmented addressing has long been considered an obsolete mode of operation, and all current PC operating systems in effect bypass it, setting all segments to a base address of 0 and a size of 4 GB (4,294,967,296 bytes). AMD was the first x86-family vendor to implement no-execute in linear addressing mode. The feature is also available in legacy mode on AMD64 processors, and recent Intel x86 processors, when PAE is used.
  • Removal of older features: A number of "system programming" features of the x86 architecture are not used in modern operating systems and are not available on AMD64 in long (64-bit and compatibility) mode. These include segmented addressing (although the FS and GS segments are retained in vestigial form for use as extra base pointers to operating system structures), the task state switch mechanism, and Virtual 8086 mode. These features do of course remain fully implemented in "legacy mode," thus permitting these processors to run 32-bit and 16-bit operating systems without modification.

My System SpecsSystem Spec
08 Dec 2009   #22

Windows 7 Ultimate x64

Just to address the original issue, there is a memory leak somewhere when using Windows 7 and some applications. Specifically I believe it to be the VC Redistributable files that are causing this. Case in point. I just installed Borderlands on my PC and my physical memory usage went from 40-45% to 95%. Even displaying processes from all users I'm only finding a total of 471mb used.

This leak occurs when I install most games and it wasn't until recently when I installed Torchlight that I came to the conclusion that the vcredist.exe program and associated files may be the culprit. What lead me to this conclusion was the minor fact that I ended up needing to install the program 3x in one night and between each installation my used physical memory jumped up 10-15% and never went down.

Unfortunately even though I may have found the culprit I have no idea of a solution short of rebooting the machine. Even now as I write this post my physical memory usage dropped to 78% for some unknown reason despite no action on my part and is giving every indication of not going lower. Either way when installing a game or other program/application causes my physical memory usage to jump from 30-40% to 90%+ and stay there there is clearly a memory issue going on as there is no way any application should be using 2gb of RAM after installation and before you run it.
My System SpecsSystem Spec

 memory leak problems,at least i think so

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