You can run chkdsk without any parameters (no /f or /r) to see if there are any problems, but if there are, you need to run it again with the /f or /r (/r preferred) parameter to actually correct any errors it finds. When you do you will get this message:
The type of the file system is NTFS.
Cannot lock current drive.
Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another
process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be
checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N)
Reply Y then reboot.