For research, Google is your friend.
As for transferring data, the simplest way would be to invest in a portable external hard drive.
You could also use your ISP's online data-backup service to upload data from your laptop, and then download the data to your home computer when you get home.
You could also use a sync program to sync the files between the two computers, but you'll need to research that further for methods and cost.
I believe you can also use Microsoft's Live Mesh, but I've never used it so I can't confirm how effective it'll be.