This Adobe FAQ page gives an explanation about Adobe AIR: Adobe AIR 3 | FAQ | Frequently asked questions
And this one from Java: What is Java and why do I need it?
Personal opinion: Your computer will probably function quite well without either one installed. The only Adobe product I have on any of my computers is Adobe Flash because many websites (YouTube, TV station websites like CNN, ABC, NBC, etc) require Flash to view content. I uninstalled Java more than a year ago and haven't missed it at all. Never had AIR.
Wait ... I take that back. During the last time change to Daylight Saving Time I went to the official US Government website
. It needed Java. So I went to an alternate site that didn't need Java. The point being, you can probably remove AIR and Java and not miss them. If you happen to encounter a website that needs either one you'll get a prompt and you can either install at that time or find a different website.