This is for educational purposes only. I hope no one on this site would abuse the information i am about to provide.
Remote File Inclusion (RFI):
A method of uploading a shell by an off-site link.
Local File Inclusion (LFI) AKA Directory traversal attack:
A method of pulling usernames and passwords off a website vulnerable to the exploit of insufficient security validation / sanitization of user-supplied input file names.
Blind Structured Query Language Injection: (blind SQLI):
Method of once again insufficient security validation and sanitization of user-input.
This is the easiest method of SQLi. This method allows you to enter codes such as ' or '1'='1 into the username and password fields to gain access.
Cross Site Scripting (XSS):
Cross site request forgery (CSRF):
An attack that is commonly sent by e-mail or other means and often tricks a user. Links given to a target may include HTML.This will be activated through the slave's browser and the site will think it was a valid and intentional move.
Public exploits are just scripts that people have released for others to use. Such as
this exploit which exploits a web-server running this program on one of its open ports.
This is the method or redirecting the domain name to a rouge domain name. This method is used particularly in phishing attacks.
Another attempt that can be used to hijack the domain name is called DNS cache poisoning.
This method is the practice of running a program to keep guessing the password and username of a site. This method is vastly going out of fashion as the max login attempts are added and even without this obstacle, it can take weeks to gain the correct password.
Yes, just as it sounds. This is the method of just guessing common passwords.
If a site with FTP access is found, there is software they can use to sniff the password and username when the login.
RCE (Remote Command Execution):
This is the method of making the server read command that you have entered for it to.
A common method used to gain information. This can be a long process, but an effective one.
This is a method of editing cookies you have already gained, to gain extra privileges. Not a very common method now as of cookies being encrypted, and having to be signed.
An attack usual done by modifying values in the url. E.g. changing a value to decrease the amount you have to pay on something.
A Firefox add-on which is used to modify http/https headers and post parameters.
Admin Auth bypass:
This exploit when a server/application allows you to edit by having the valid URL, instead of by cookies. Another method of admin auth bypass is editing the html to proceed even if the password is wrong.