I think the OP wants it the OTHER way around -- not people from Outside but to stop applications on his machine INSIDE from "phoning home" -- programs supplied by organisations such as adobe often do this to try and avoid people from using keygens on their programs which might allow a program to actually install but it will stop it working when the activation server is contacted.
However the downside to this is that Legitimate users of the programs go through this as well and if you aren't connected to the internet - your LEGAL program will stop working.
Nice if you are say a photographer having to post process photos for an important client which you are doing off line on your own machine and the application decides at that moment to "phone home" .
I'm sure even basic AV software surely would have some log of what programs are making use of Internet services. Most organisations have programs which detail what sites are visited by client computers on a network with how much time is spent on the net.
Any of these type of programs would do -- or set yourself up a proxy server which handles all Internet requests. Block those you don't like.