Hello and welcome to the Seven Forums! Your errors are very generic. Very generic. We need to try a lot of things, to see from which angle the problem lies, so that we can home in the on correct fix. I do have a very good reason for running every one of these tools. I am not just guessing and throwing at you everything I know!
Please re-try Windows Update. This puts the error at the end of all the logs, and makes my job easier.
Please run the following tool in AGGRESSIVE mode: How do I reset Windows Update components?
Don't run it manually, that is just a waste of time. Aggressive mode will do what we need it to.
Now run this tool: Repair & Fix Windows Updates with Fix WU Utility | The Windows Club
Restart your computer and re-test Windows Update. If it works, do not continue.
If this has not solved your issue, I need to take some diagnostic logs to do some manual analysis.
NOTE to users reading this with the same problem. If the above has not cured your problem, you must run the below. However, the fixes for these diagnostic logs are different for every computer, even with the same error code. You MUST post these logs in your own thread, and not follow any user specific fixes I post to this user. Thanks!
This applied the same to Vista and 7. Do not worry that it says Vista: Please run steps 1, 2A, 3 (about 15 minutes), 4, 5 from this tutorial System Files - SFC Command
Don't worry about the logs for the time being. I have a very good reason for not asking for them!
Download and run this tool: Description of the System Update Readiness Tool for Windows Vista, for Windows Server 2008, for Windows 7, and for Windows Server 2008 R2
When it has finished installing the update, it is done!
When the above has completed, download and run FireGenUL: Altair Technologies Ltd.
A console application will show on the screen for a few seconds.
Right, this has produces a log of logs for me. Please now upload them. To do this, create a new folder on your Desktop called LOGS. Navigate to C:\Windows\Logs and copy the entire CBS folder into your new LOGS folder. Navigate to C:\Windows\System32 and copy FireGenULReport.htm into your LOGS folder.
Close the LOGS folder, and right click on it > Send to > Compressed (zipped) folder. Upload that new zip file. Either upload it here, ideally, or if it is too big to *************** or any other media sharing website.
Thanks, and good luck!
P.S. I know there is a lot here. Take care!