Hello pmeade92 and welcome to Seven Forums.
I think I'd run some diagnostic checks on that new hard drive to see if you got a bad one. SeaTools for Windows is a diagnostic made by Seagate that works on all hard drives, even those not made by Seagate. The manufacturer of the new hard drive probably has their own diagnostic tool available as well. SeaTools | Seagate
It's also possible that soemthing within the updates is causing an issue. Whenever there's more than just a few updates I prefer installing them manually just a few at a time. Start with the critical/required, then the recommended, then the optional. Keep track of the KB numbers. Install the first group of 5 or 10, reboot the computer and see if everything works. If it does, install the next group, rebooting after each group installs. If any problems are noted you'll know exactly which group to uninstall. Reinstall each update individually and reboot after each one. They'll either install properly or you'll know which one is the problem. Save it for last and continue installing the next group. It's a lot slower this way but usually results in a better update experience.