I have been through this today and fixed mine.
There are ways MS suggests when you right click on the failed updates and read the help files that contain links to MS downloadable tools of sorts.
After reading about and trying some of the tools with no success I took a hint I read between the lines about running the one with "service pack" in its name alone. I had 10 updates available one of which had service pack in its title. It was "Security Update for Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Service Pack 1 Redistributable Package (KB2538243)"
I ran it alone and it took. Remaining were 4 security and 4 updates for windows and an IE9 update.
I then tried the 4 updates for windows alone and they failed.
Long story short, I tried some alone until they started working and got them all in.
Look at my screen shot and see the order in which I used. The order goes from the bottom up. The Hot Fix you see is one of MS's suggestions I tried that changed nothing.
As long as this is not every time eh?