Thanks for the logs and files, they are very helpful.
I have to say, your CheckSUR error code is a very rare one indeed, and one that I've never come across before. I have my suspicions on what it references, but we'll have to double check this as I don't want to do something that could potentially harm your computer.
Could you zip up and upload the following file please:
This is a registry hive that contains all of the information about Windows Update