Hello Myrsoc and welcome to Seven Forums.
A couple of questions just to clarify some things.
1. How did you install Windows 7 on the new hard drive? Did you do a factory recovery using Sony Vaio recovery disks you previously made? A clean install using a Windows 7 installation disk? A previous system image? Something else?
2. Was the new hard drive already partitioned and formatted? How To Partition a Hard Drive in Windows 7
3. Are you experiencing any other problems with your installed Windows 7 (besides not being able to download any updates or anything from Microsoft?)
4. Can you post a maximized screen shot of your disk managment? How To Access Disk Management in Windows 7 Screenshots and Files - Upload and Post in Seven Forums
5. Have you tried resetting Windows Updates? Windows Update - Reset