I don't recall ever seeing this error in the CheckSUR log (f) CSI Unable to Query Store Version 0x00000002
but it relates to this error in the CBS log NonStart: Failed to get store. [HRESULT = 0x80073712 - ERROR_SXS_COMPONENT_STORE_CORRUPT]
and Error STATUS_SXS_COMPONENT_STORE_CORRUPT originated in function ComponentStore::CRawStoreLayout::OpenCanonicalDataKey expression: (null)
It's highly likely that the only solution is going to be a repair install - and possibly even a clean install.
This problem has been present since at least November - so a System Restore is not a good idea.
Back up your data to external storage, and then attempt a repair install. Repair Install