The CheckSUR is clear - surprisingly, considering the errors in the CBS.logs!
You have a number of registry bitflips - 113 of them, that I've found.
I can try resolving these manually, but it will take some time, and effort on both our parts - or you can attempt a repair install and hope that it cures most, if not all of them.
If you want to go ahead and try fixing this manually, please copy the C:\Windows\system32\config\COMPONENTS file (no extension) to your desktop, then compress the copy, and upload it to your SkyDrive or other favoured fileshare site, and post a link.
I'll take a look, and see what I can do with it.