I'm having the same problem on two new machines - straight out of the box. All that I've set up is:
Static IP address
DNS Server address
Added each machine to the workgroup
Note this is in a school, and the LEA requires these settings. Network is via ethernet. These are the first Windows 7 machines that the school has obtained, so nothing to compare with.
I can access the internet, with no problem. I can browse the network and see other machines, folders etc on the network. The only issue that I can see is as per the old thread "http://www.sevenforums.com/network-sharing/10404-message-no-internet-access-fact-connected.html#post100046
" where the network icon has the yellow triangle, and the message reports network connected, no internet.
I know that the LEA are VERY
despotic in their control of the network.
Does the update process use any ports other than standard internet / proxy settings?